Forest Research Methods

Forest Research Methods

 Pederson, Neil. 2010. External characteristics of old trees in the eastern deciduous forest. Natural Areas Journal, 30-4:396-407.

Frelich, L.E., P.B. Reich. 2003. Perspectives on development of definitions and values related to old-growth forests. Environmental Reviews, 11:s9-s22.

Lorimer, C.G., L.E. Frelich. 1998. A structural alternative to chronosequence analysis for uneven-aged northern hardwood forests. Journal of Sustainable Forestry, 6-3/4:347-366.

Bechtold, W.A., 2003. Crown position and light exposure classification- an alternative to field-assigned crown class. Northern Journal of Applied Forest, 20-4:154-160.

Sprugel, D.G., 1991. Disturbance, equilibrium, and environmental variability: what is ‘natural’ vegetation in a changing environment? Biological Conservation, 58:1-18.